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Archaeal Viruses

∞ generated and posted on 2017.05.01 ∞

Archaeal viruses are the semi-autonomous, acellular parasites of domain Archaea.

Archaeal viruses are notable especially for their diverse and unusual virion structures, only a few of which are seen as well among bacterial viruses or viruses of eukaryotes. Given the small number of so-far described isolates, it is unlikely that any but a fraction of archaeal virus diversity is currently known.

Archaeal virus genomes are double-stranded DNA unless otherwise indicated, and all listed types are DNA rather than RNA viruses.

Another of my efforts towards generating an archaeal viruses table can be found here and includes the source of isolation of many of these viruses. In addition, much of the pre-2013 archaeal virus literature can be found in supplemental material as reached here.

As links to this page, under Euryarchfaeota Viruses see:

Myoviridae, Pleolipovidae, Podoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae, Salterprovirus, Siphoviridae, and unclassified.

Also as links to this page, under Crenarchaeota Viruses see:

Ampullaviridae, Bicaudaviridae, Clavaviridae, Fuselloviridae, Globuloviridae, Guttaviridae, Lipothrixviridae, Rudiviridae, Spiraviridae, Tristromaviridae, Turriviridae, and unclassified.

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Euryarchaeota Viruses

Family* Wik Scl Pmd Img ICTV DNA (~kb) Comments
Myoviridae

viruses B10, BJ1 (43, kb), ΦCh1 (58.5 kb), ΦH1 (ΦH; 59 kb), ΦN (56 kb), Hh1 (37.6 kb), Hh3 (29.6 kb), HF1 (77.7 kb), HF2 (75.9 kb), HATV (and others), HJTV (and others), HRTV (and others), Hs1S, HSTV-2 (and others), Ja.1 (230 kb), &PsiM1 (30.4 kb), S45, S5100
linear (30-80, 230) head-tailed virions, tail is contractile
known hosts include: Haloarcula sodomense (HATV), Halobacterium salinarum (B10, Hs1, ΦH, S45, S5100), Halorubrum coriense (BJ1, HF1, HF2, Hh1, Hh3, HRTV, HSTV, Ja.1, ΦN), Methanobacterium (ΨsM1), Natrialba magadii (φCh1)
Pleolipoviridae

viruses His2 (16 kb, dsDNA linear), HGPV-1 (9.7 kb), HHPV-1 (8 kb) HRPV-1 (~10 kb, ssDNA circular), HRPV-2 (~10 kb, ssDNA circular), HRPV-3 (8.7 kb), HRPV-6 (~10 kb, ssDNA circular); unless indicated otherwise then dsDNA circular
see comments lipid enveloped, pleomorphic virions; dsDNA, ssDNA, linear, and circular genomes
known hosts include: Acidianus, Halorubrum (HRPV-1, HRPV-2, HRPV-3, HRPV-6), Halogeometricum (HGPV-1), Pyrobaculum, Sulfolobus islandicus, Thermoproteus
Podoviridae

virus HSTV-1 (32.2 kb)
(30) head-tailed virions, tail is short and non-contractile; uncommon
known hosts include: Haloarcula sinaiiensis (HSTV-1)
Sphaerolipoviridae

viruses HHIV-2 (30.5 kb), PH1 (28 kb), SH1 (30.9 kb)
linear (30) icosahedral virions with internal membrane
known hosts include: Haloarcula hispanica (HHIV-2, PH1, SH1), Halorubrum (30.9 kb)
(Salterprovirus)

virus His1 (14.4 kb)
linear (15) spindle-shaped virions with small tails, containing lipid
known hosts include: Haloarcula hispanica (His1)
Siphoviridae

viruses BJ1, ΦF1 (85 kb), ΦF3 (36 kb; cirular), HCTV (and others), HHTV (and others), HVTV-1 (and others), ψM1, ψM2 (26 kb), ψM100
linear (30-80) head-tailed virions, tail is long and non-contractile
known hosts include: Haloarcula, Methanothermobacter, Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum Marburg (ΦF1, ΦF3, ψM2)
Unclassified

viruses A3-VLP, HF2, HHPV-1, HRPV1, PAV1 (18 kb), PG (50 kb), PSM1 (35 kb), SNJ1 (16.3 kb), S41, S41 Vm, S4100, S50.2, S50.2 Vm, TPV1 (21.5 kb), VTA
--- PAV1 and TPV1 are spindle-shaped with a short tail and circular genome; SNJ1 may be icosahedral, is spherical, and contains lipids
known hosts include: Halobacterium (S41, S41 Vm, S4100, S50.2, S50.2 Vm)Haloarcula hispanica, Halorubrum, Methanobacterium (PG, PSM1, VTA), Methanococcus voltae (A3-VLP), Natrinema (SNJ1), Pyrococcus abyssi (PAV1), Thermococcus prieurii (TPV1)

Crenarchaeota Viruses

Family* Wik Scl Pmd Img ICTV DNA (~kb) Comments
known hosts include:
Ampullaviridae

viruses ABV (23.8)
linear (25) bottle-shaped virions with short fibers at wider end
known hosts include: Acidianus convivator (ABV)
Bicaudaviridae

viruse ATV (62.7 kb)
circular (65) spindle-shaped virions with two large tails which form following virion release from infected cells
known hosts include: Acidianus convivator (ATV)
Clavaviridae

virus APBV1 (5.2 kb)
circular (5) rod-, that is, bacillus-shaped virions
known hosts include: Aeropyrum pernix (APBV1)
Fuselloviridae

viruses ASV1 (24.1 kb), SSV1 (15.4 kb), SSV2 (14.7 kb), SSV3 (15 kb), SSV4 (15.1 kb), SSV5 (15.3 kb), SSV6 (15.6 kb), SSV7 (17.6 kb), SSV8 (16.4 kb), SSV9 (17.3 kb), SSVk1, SSVrh
circular (15-25) spindle-/lemon-shaped virions with small tails; genera Alphafusellovirus and Betafusellovirus
known hosts include: Acidianus (ASV1), Aeropyrum, Haloarcula, Pyrococcus, Stygiolobus, Sulfolobus (SSV1, SSV2, SSV4, SSV5, SSV6, SSV7, SSV8, SSV9), Sulfolobus shibatae (a.k.a., S. acidocaldarius), Thermococcus
Globuloviridae

viruses AOV1, PSV1 (PSV; 28.3 kb), TTSV1 (21.6 kb)
linear (20-30) spherical-shpaed virions containing lipids
known hosts include: Aeropyrum (AOV1), Pyrobaculum (PSV1), Thermoproteus tenax (TTSV1)
Guttaviridae

viruses APOV1 (13.7 kb), SNDV (20 kb)
circular (15-20) droplet-shaped virions; genera Alphaguttavirus and Betaguttavirus
known hosts include: Aeropyrum pernix (APOV1), Sulfolobus neozealandicus (SNDV)
Lipothrixviridae

viruses AFV1 (21 kb), AFV2 (31.7 kb), AFV3 (40.4 kb), AFV6 (39.5 kb), AFV7 (36.8 kb), AFV8 (38.1 kb), AFV9 (41.1 kb), DAFV (56 kb), SIFV (40.8 kb), TTV1 (15.9 kb), TTV2 (16 kb), TTV3 (27 kb), TTV4 (17 kb), TTV1-1
linear (15-40, 55) flexible, lipid-containing linear-shaped virions with various filaments jutting from ends; order Ligamenvirales; genera Alphalipothrixvirus, Betalipothrixvirus, Gammalipothrixvirus, and Deltalipothrixvirus
known hosts include: Acidianus (AFV1, AFV2, AFV3, AFV6, AFV7, AFV8, AFV9), Acidianus hospitalis, Desulfurolobus ambivalens (DAFV), Sulfolobus islandicus (SIFV), Thermoproteus tenax (TTV1, TTV2, TTV3, TTV4, TTV1-1)
Rudiviridae

viruses ARV1 (24.6), SIRV1 (32.3 kb), SIRV2 (35.4 kb), SRV1 (SRV; 28 kb)
linear (25-35) rod-shaped virions; order Ligamenvirales
known hosts include: Acidianus (ARV1), Sulfolobus islandicus (SIRV1, SIRV2), Stygiolobus (SRV)
Spiraviridae

virus ACV (24.9 kb)
ssDNA circular (25) spiral-shaped capsids
known hosts include: Aeropyrum (ACV)
"Tristromaviridae"

viruses
filamentous virions
known hosts include:
"Turriviridae"

viruses STIV (17.6 kb), STIV2 (16.6 kb)
circular (15-20) icoahedral, internal membraned virions with prominent, turret-like features on their surfaces
known hosts include: Sulfolobus (STIV, STIV2)
Unclassified

viruses APSV1 (38 kb), SMV1 (48.7 kb), STIV1, STIV2, STSV1 (75.2 kb), STSV2 (76 kb)
--- APSV1, SMV1, STSV1, and STSV2 are spindle shaped with long tails, and have circular genomes; STSV1 and STSV2 contain lipids
known hosts include: Aeropyrum pernix (APSV1), Sulfolobus (SMV1), Sulfolobus solfataricus, Sulfolobus tengchongensis (STSV1, STSV2)

Names and Abbreviations:

Other Tables of Archaeal Viruses:

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